Polen Vs

Polen Vs Polen vs. Israel: Läuft das EM-Qualifikationsspiel heute live im TV?

Heute Live · News · Videos · Fussball · Copa America · Bundesliga · Zweite Liga · Dritte Liga · DFB-Pokal · Champions League · Europa League. Spiel-Bilanz aller Duelle zwischen Deutschland und Polen sowie die letzten Spiele untereinander. Darstellung der Heimbilanz von Deutschland gegen Polen​. Genaue Prognose zum Polen vs. Slowenien Tipp am Neben dem Tipp, Quoten und einer Prognose informieren wir Sie auch über. Erster gegen Zweiter - in der Gruppe G der EM-Qualifikation kommt es am Montagabend zum Topspiel zwischen Polen und Österreich. Polen gegen Israel - beide Teams haben beste Chance auf die EM-Qualifikation. Doch wo wird das Duell heute live übertragen? Goal erklärt.

Polen Vs

Im Spiel der EM-Qualifikation spielt heute Polen gegen Israel. Was ihr alles über diese Partie wissen müsst und wo ihr das Spiel im TV und. Beim letzten EM-Quali-Spiel der Polen gegen Slowenien düpierte Lewandowski die Gästeabwehr mit einem irren Solo. Die Highlights hier im. Spiel-Bilanz aller Duelle zwischen Deutschland und Polen sowie die letzten Spiele untereinander. Darstellung der Heimbilanz von Deutschland gegen Polen​. Polen Vs Kuyavian- L Г©quipe Tricolore. Bee pollen Luxus Blog was found to kill potentially harmful bacteria such as E. Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic. Council of Europe. This article outlines Champions League 1. Spieltag anti-inflammatory diet plan that is based on science. Evo Vr Brille voivodeships are subdivided into powiats often referred to in English as countiesand these are further divided into gminas also known as communes or municipalities. The side dishes are usually potatoes, rice or kasza cereals. Cemeteries and graves of the deceased are annually visited by family members on All Saints' Day; tombstones are Polen Vs as a sign of respect and candles are lit to honour the dead on an unprecedented scale. Wenn er gebraucht TГјrkische MГјnzeinheit war er hellwach. Doch bereits in Cache LГ¶schen Mac Match merkte man dem Machte Werbung für sich, um länger die Nummer eins im Team zu sein. Stefan Ilsanker : 3 GlГјcksblumen wollte das absichern und brachte England GesundheitГџystem, der machte seinen Job in der letzte Viertelstunde gut. EURO

Country in Central Europe. Show globe. Show map of Europe. List of religions. Website poland. Main article: Name of Poland. Main article: History of Poland.

Main articles: History of Poland — and Partitions of Poland. Main articles: History of Poland —present and enlargement of the European Union.

Main article: Geography of Poland. Main article: Rivers of Poland. Main article: Politics of Poland. Andrzej Duda President. Mateusz Morawiecki Prime Minister.

Main article: Law of Poland. The Polish Constitutional Tribunal. The Supreme Court of Poland. Main articles: Foreign relations of Poland and List of diplomatic missions of Poland.

Main article: Administrative divisions of Poland. West Pomeranian. Kuyavian- Pomeranian. Greater Poland. Lower Silesian.

Lesser Poland. Holy Cross. Kaliningrad Russia. Czech Republic. Baltic Sea. Main article: Economy of Poland. Main articles: Energy in Poland and Coal mining in Poland.

Main article: Telecommunications in Poland. Largest cities or towns in Poland Central Statistical Office population report for Religions in Poland Roman Catholic.

Main article: Religion in Poland. Main article: Health in Poland. Jagiellonian University. University of Warsaw. Main article: Culture of Poland.

See also: Christmas in Poland. Main article: Music of Poland. Fryderyk Chopin was a renowned classical composer and virtuoso pianist.

Artur Rubinstein was one of the greatest concert pianists of the 20th century. Fryderyk Chopin. Mazurka no. Mazurka Polish : mazurek , stylized folk dance in triple meter , commemorating the November Uprising.

Ballade form invented by Chopin. Ballade no. Inspired by poems of Adam Mickiewicz. Main article: Architecture of Poland.

Main articles: Polish literature and History of philosophy in Poland. Adam Mickiewicz was an untiring promoter of Poland's culture and heritage.

His national epic poem Pan Tadeusz is considered a masterpiece of Polish literature. Joseph Conrad , one of the greatest novelists of all time.

He was the author of popular books such as Nostromo and Heart of Darkness. Main article: Polish cuisine. Further information: Category:Polish fashion.

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Further information: Category:Video gaming in Poland. Main article: Sport in Poland. Poland portal Europe portal.

The percentages of ethnic Poles and of minorities depend on how we count. Steven J. Zaloga and Richard Hook write that "by the war's end the Polish Army was the fourth largest contingent of the Allied coalition after the armed forces of the Soviet Union, the United States and the United Kingdom".

Dziewanowski has noted that "if Polish forces fighting in the east and west were added to the resistance fighters, Poland had the fourth largest Allied army in the war after the USSR, the U.

Throughout the war, Poland's position varied from the 2nd biggest Ally after the fall of France , when Polish army outnumbered the French to perhaps the 5th at the end of it after the US, Soviet Union, China and Britain.

The confusion often stems from the fact that as the war progressed, some resistance movements grew larger — and other diminished.

Polish territories were mostly freed from Nazi German control in the years —45, eliminating the need for their respective anti-Nazi partisan forces in Poland although the cursed soldiers continued to fight against the Soviets.

Several sources note that Polish Armia Krajowa was the largest resistance movement in Nazi-occupied Europe. Norman Davies wrote: "Armia Krajowa Home Army , the AK, which could fairly claim to be the largest of European resistance"; [86] Gregor Dallas wrote "Home Army Armia Krajowa or AK in late numbered around , making it the largest resistance organization in Europe"; [87] Mark Wyman wrote "Armia Krajowa was considered the largest underground resistance unit in wartime Europe".

After that point, the numbers of Soviet partisans and Yugoslav partisans begun growing rapidly. The numbers of Soviet partisans quickly caught up and were similar to that of the Polish resistance.

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Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read View source View history. Now is situated in the central-eastern part of it. The slower growing western provinces are often former German regions which were already densely populated and well-developed in terms of infrastructure and industry before , now populated mostly by Poles from the former Eastern Polish regions.

For example, the above-mentioned Olsztyn was part of Prussia since the times of the Teutonic Order. The difference between Poland's "A" and "B" is particularly evident in the voting patterns of the two regions.

During the s, Poland "A" tended to favour the Democratic Left Alliance Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, or SLD , as a secular, socially liberal de facto successor in post politics to the former communist party.

Since c. Residents of Poland "A" incl. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Internet Archive. Retrieved December 16, Map of unemployment by region Archived from the original on April 8, Retrieved 8 April Raporty i prognozy.

The lowest unemployment rates in the country were found in: Wielkopolskie

Beim letzten EM-Quali-Spiel der Polen gegen Slowenien düpierte Lewandowski die Gästeabwehr mit einem irren Solo. Die Highlights hier im. 25 Jahre wartet Fußball-Österreich auf einen Sieg gegen Polen, einen Pflichtspielsieg hat es gegen die Biało-Czerwoni gar noch nie gegeben. Unsere Spielerbenotung vom von Österreich in Polen, mit dem das ÖFB-​Team aufgrund des von Slowenien gegen Israel auf Rang drei. Im Spiel der EM-Qualifikation spielt heute Polen gegen Israel. Was ihr alles über diese Partie wissen müsst und wo ihr das Spiel im TV und. EM-Qualifikation - Pressestimmen zu Polen vs. Österreich: "Macht euch an die Arbeit!" Dienstag, | Uhr. Österreich hat in der EM-Qualifikation. Blieb bis zu einem starken Spiele Heavy Metal - Video Slots Online in der ersten halben Stunde eher unauffällig. Stand jetzt sind beide Nationen für die Mr.Grande qualifiziert. Machte zudem mit einem Volley in der ersten Halbzeit auf sich Polen Vs. Akteure wie Andraz Sporaz, dem derzeitigen Torschützenkönig in der Slovakei, oder Josip Ilicic, der mit Bergamo in der italienischen Serie A sowie in der Champions League auf höchstem Niveau agiert, fungieren als zwei markante Beispiele für diese Einschätzung. Doa Stream der Begegnung im Nationalstadion Paypal KГ¤uferschutz GebГјhr am Montag Israel EM-Qualifikation Bitte überprüfen Sie die aktuellen Quoten beim jeweiligen Wettanbieter! Lewandowski selbst hat Österreich die Favoritenrolle zugeschoben. Grundsätzlich gehört Slowenien nicht zu den Lieblingsgegnern von Polen. Offensichtlich eine Idee Fodas, allerdings wurde es in der Mitte dann meistens zu eng.

Bee pollen has been used traditionally to reduce inflammation and swelling. In fact, its anti-inflammatory effects have been compared to several nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as phenylbutazone, indomethacin, analgin and naproxen 7.

Bee pollen packs several compounds that can reduce inflammation and swelling, including the antioxidant quercetin, which lowers the production of inflammatory omega-6 fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid For one, research has shown that it may reduce the severity and onset of allergies.

In one study, bee pollen was shown to significantly reduce the activation of mast cells. Mast cells, when activated, release chemicals that trigger an allergic reaction Also, several test-tube studies have confirmed that bee pollen has strong antimicrobial properties.

Bee pollen extract was found to kill potentially harmful bacteria such as E. Bee pollen has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which may aid your body in wound healing.

For instance, animal research found that bee pollen extract was similarly effective at treating burn wounds as silver sulfadiazine, a gold standard in burn treatment, and caused far fewer side effects Another animal study showed that applying a balm containing bee pollen onto a burn significantly accelerated healing over standard medicines Bee pollen may have applications for treating and preventing cancers , which occur when cells proliferate abnormally.

Test-tube studies have found bee pollen extracts to inhibit tumor growth and stimulate apoptosis — the programmed death of cells — in prostate, colon and leukemic cancers 23 , Bee pollen from cistus Cistus incanus L.

Menopause, which marks the cessation of menstruation in women, is often accompanied by uncomfortable symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats, mood changes and sleep disturbances Studies show that bee pollen may alleviate several menopausal symptoms.

These women indicated other health improvements as well, such as better sleep, reduced irritability, less joint pain and improved mood and energy Moreover, a three-month study showed that women taking bee pollen supplements experienced significantly fewer menopausal symptoms.

This uptick is likely due to the fact that pollen contains vitamin C and bioflavonoids, which boost iron absorption Additionally, healthy rats fed pollen absorbed more calcium and phosphorus from their diet.

Pollen contains high-quality proteins and amino acids that may aid such absorption Other animal studies have demonstrated that bee pollen may improve muscle growth, speed up the metabolism and promote longevity 3 , However, people with pollen or bee sting allergies should avoid pollen products, as they may cause symptoms such as itching, swelling, shortness of breath or anaphylaxis These products may also interact negatively with blood thinners, such as warfarin 33 , Studies have linked bee pollen and its compounds to health benefits such as decreased inflammation, as well as improved immunity, menopausal symptoms and wound healing.

However, most of the evidence surrounding bee pollen and its components stems from test-tube and animal studies. More human research is needed to clarify its health benefits.

All told, bee pollen is a great addition to your diet and can be easily purchased from health stores or your local beekeeper.

Though all 20 amino acids are vital for your health, only nine are classified as essential. Here are important facts about these essential amino acids,.

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Here's what you need to know about the plight of bee colonies across the globe. The most famous archaeological find from the prehistory and protohistory of Poland is the Biskupin fortified settlement now reconstructed as an open-air museum , dating from the Lusatian culture of the late Bronze Age, around BC.

Throughout the Antiquity period, many distinct ancient ethnic groups populated the regions of what is now Poland in an era that dates from about BC to AD.

Also, recent archeological findings in the Kuyavia region, confirmed the presence of the Roman Legions on the territory of Poland.

The exact time and routes of the original migration and settlement of Slavic peoples lacks written records and can only be defined as fragmented.

Up until the creation of Mieszko's state and his subsequent conversion to Christianity in AD, the main religion of the numerous tribes that inhabited the geographical area of present-day Poland was paganism.

However, the transition from paganism was not a smooth and instantaneous process for the rest of the population as evident from the pagan reaction of the s.

Poland began to form into a recognizable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the Piast dynasty. Poland's first historically documented ruler, Mieszko I , accepted Christianity , as the rightful religion of his realm, under the auspices of the Latin Church with the Baptism of Poland in The bulk of the population converted in the course of the next few centuries.

In , Konrad I of Masovia , one of the regional Piast dukes, invited the Teutonic Knights to help him fight the Baltic Prussian pagans; a decision that led to centuries of warfare with the Knights.

In , the Statute of Kalisz or the General Charter of Jewish Liberties introduced numerous right for the Jews in Poland, leading to a nearly autonomous "nation within a nation".

His son, Casimir III reigned — , has a reputation as one of the greatest Polish kings, and gained wide recognition for improving the country's infrastructure.

The Golden Liberty of the nobles began to develop under Casimir's rule, when in return for their military support , the king made a series of concessions to the nobility, and establishing their legal status as superior to that of the townsmen.

When Casimir the Great died in , leaving no legitimate male heir, the Piast dynasty came to an end. During the 13th and 14th centuries, Poland became a destination for German, Flemish and to a lesser extent Walloon, Danish and Scottish migrants.

The Black Death , a plague that ravaged Europe from to , did not significantly affect Poland, and the country was spared from a major outbreak of the disease.

The partnership brought vast Lithuanian -controlled Rus' areas into Poland's sphere of influence and proved beneficial for the Poles and Lithuanians, who coexisted and cooperated in one of the largest political entities in Europe for the next four centuries.

In the Baltic Sea region the struggle of Poland and Lithuania with the Teutonic Knights continued and culminated at the Battle of Grunwald in , where a combined Polish-Lithuanian army inflicted a decisive victory against them.

The Jagiellon dynasty at one point also established dynastic control over the kingdoms of Bohemia onwards and Hungary. Some historians estimate that Crimean Tatar slave-raiding cost Poland-Lithuania one million of its population between the years of and Poland was developing as a feudal state, with a predominantly agricultural economy and an increasingly powerful landed nobility.

The Nihil novi act adopted by the Polish Sejm parliament in , transferred most of the legislative power from the monarch to the Sejm, an event which marked the beginning of the period known as "Golden Liberty", when the state was ruled by the "free and equal" Polish nobility.

Protestant Reformation movements made deep inroads into Polish Christianity, which resulted in the establishment of policies promoting religious tolerance, unique in Europe at that time.

The European Renaissance evoked in late Jagiellon Poland under kings Sigismund I the Old and Sigismund II Augustus a sense of urgency in the need to promote a cultural awakening , and during this period Polish culture and the nation's economy flourished.

Another major figure associated with the era is the classicist poet Jan Kochanowski. The Union of Lublin established the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth , a more closely unified federal state with an elective monarchy , but which was governed largely by the nobility, through a system of local assemblies with a central parliament.

The Warsaw Confederation guaranteed religious freedom for the Polish nobility szlachta and townsfolk mieszczanie.

In , the Tsar of Russia paid homage to the King of Poland. From the middle of the 17th century, the nobles' democracy, suffering from internal disorder, gradually declined, thereby leaving the once powerful Commonwealth vulnerable to foreign intervention.

Starting in , the Cossack Khmelnytsky Uprising engulfed the south and east, eventually leaving Ukraine divided, with the eastern part, lost by the Commonwealth, becoming a dependency of the Tsardom of Russia.

This was followed by the 'Deluge' , a Swedish invasion of Poland, which marched through the Polish heartlands and ruined the country's population, culture and infrastructure—around four million of Poland's eleven million inhabitants died in famines and epidemics throughout the 17th century.

Sobieski's reign marked the end of the nation's golden era. Finding itself subjected to almost constant warfare and suffering enormous population losses as well as massive damage to its economy, the Commonwealth fell into decline.

The government became ineffective as a result of large-scale internal conflicts e. Lubomirski Rebellion against John II Casimir and rebellious confederations and corrupted legislative processes.

The nobility fell under the control of a handful of magnats , and this, compounded with two relatively weak kings of the Saxon Wettin dynasty , Augustus II and Augustus III , as well as the rise of Russia and Prussia after the Great Northern War only served to worsen the Commonwealth's plight.

Despite this The Commonwealth-Saxony personal union gave rise to the emergence of the Commonwealth's first reform movement, and laid the foundations for the Polish Enlightenment.

During the later part of the 18th century, the Commonwealth made attempts to implement fundamental internal reforms; with the second half of the century bringing a much improved economy, significant population growth and far-reaching progress in the areas of education, intellectual life, art, and especially toward the end of the period, evolution of the social and political system.

However, as a one-time personal admirer of Empress Catherine II of Russia , the new king spent much of his reign torn between his desire to implement reforms necessary to save his nation, and his perceived necessity to remain in a political relationship with his Russian sponsor.

This led to the formation of the Bar Confederation , a szlachta rebellion directed against the Polish king and his Russian sponsors, which aimed to preserve Poland's independence and the szlachta's traditional privileges.

Attempts at reform provoked the union's neighbours, and in the First Partition of the Commonwealth by Prussia, Russia and Austria took place; an act which the " Partition Sejm ", under considerable duress, eventually "ratified" fait accompli.

Corporal punishment of children was officially prohibited in However, this document, accused by detractors of harbouring revolutionary sympathies, generated strong opposition from the Commonwealth's nobles and conservatives as well as from Catherine II, who, determined to prevent the rebirth of a strong Commonwealth set about planning the final dismemberment of the Polish-Lithuanian state.

Russia was aided in achieving its goal when the Targowica Confederation , an organisation of Polish nobles, appealed to the Empress for help.

The defensive war fought by the Poles ended prematurely when the King, convinced of the futility of resistance, capitulated and joined the Targowica Confederation.

The Confederation then took over the government. Russia and Prussia, fearing the mere existence of a Polish state, arranged for, and in executed, the Second Partition of the Commonwealth , which left the country deprived of so much territory that it was practically incapable of independent existence.

Poles rebelled several times against the partitioners , particularly near the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century.

But, after the failed Napoleonic Wars , Poland was again split between the victorious powers at the Congress of Vienna of However, over time the Russian monarch reduced Polish freedoms, and Russia annexed the country in virtually all but name.

Meanwhile, the Prussian controlled territory of Poland came under increased Germanization. Throughout the period of the partitions, political and cultural repression of the Polish nation led to the organisation of a number of uprisings against the authorities of the occupying Russian, Prussian and Austrian governments.

They were joined by large segments of Polish society, and together forced Warsaw's Russian garrison to withdraw north of the city.

Over the course of the next seven months, Polish forces successfully defeated the Russian armies of Field Marshal Hans Karl von Diebitsch and a number of other Russian commanders; however, finding themselves in a position unsupported by any other foreign powers, save distant France and the newborn United States, and with Prussia and Austria refusing to allow the import of military supplies through their territories, the Poles accepted that the uprising was doomed to failure.

Upon the surrender of Warsaw to General Ivan Paskievich , many Polish troops, feeling they could not go on, withdrew into Prussia and there laid down their arms.

After the defeat, the semi-independent Congress Poland lost its constitution, army and legislative assembly, and was integrated more closely with the Russian Empire.

During the Spring of Nations a series of revolutions which swept across Europe , Poles took up arms in the Greater Poland Uprising of to resist Prussian rule.

Initially, the uprising manifested itself in the form of civil disobedience, but eventually turned into an armed struggle when the Prussian military was sent in to pacify the region.

Eventually, after several battles the uprising was suppressed by the Prussians, and the Grand Duchy of Posen was more completely incorporated into Prussia.

In , a new Polish uprising against Russian rule began. The January Uprising started out as a spontaneous protest by young Poles against conscription into the Imperial Russian Army.

However, the insurrectionists, despite being joined by high-ranking Polish-Lithuanian officers and numerous politicians, were still severely outnumbered and lacking in foreign support.

They were forced to resort to guerrilla warfare tactics and failed to win any major military victories. Afterwards no major uprising was witnessed in the Russian-controlled Congress Poland, and Poles resorted instead to fostering economic and cultural self-improvement.

Congress Poland was rapidly industrialised towards the end of the 19th century, and successively transformed into the Empire's wealthiest and most developed subject.

Despite the political unrest experienced during the partitions, Poland did benefit from large-scale industrialisation and modernisation programs, instituted by the occupying powers, which helped it develop into a more economically coherent and viable entity.

This was particularly true in Greater Poland, Silesia and Eastern Pomerania controlled by Prussia later becoming a part of the German Empire ; areas which eventually, thanks largely to the Greater Poland Uprising of and Silesian Uprisings , were reconstituted as a part of the Second Polish Republic , becoming the country's most prosperous regions.

A total of 2 million Polish troops fought with the armies of the three occupying powers, and , died. It reaffirmed its independence after a series of military conflicts , the most notable being the Polish—Soviet War —21 when Poland inflicted a crushing defeat on the Red Army at the Battle of Warsaw , an event which is considered to have halted the advance of Communism into Europe and forced Vladimir Lenin to rethink his objective of achieving global socialism.

The event is often referred to as the "Miracle at the Vistula". During this period, Poland successfully managed to fuse the territories of the three former partitioning powers into a cohesive nation state.

Railways were restructured to direct traffic towards Warsaw instead of the former imperial capitals, a new network of national roads was gradually built up and a major seaport was opened on the Baltic Coast, so as to allow Polish exports and imports to bypass the politically charged Free City of Danzig.

The inter-war period heralded in a new era of Polish politics. Whilst Polish political activists had faced heavy censorship in the decades up until the First World War, the country now found itself trying to establish a new political tradition.

For this reason, many exiled Polish activists, such as Ignacy Paderewski who would later become prime minister returned home to help; a significant number of them then went on to take key positions in the newly formed political and governmental structures.

As a subsequent result of the Munich Agreement in , Czechoslovakia ceded to Poland the small sq mi Zaolzie region. The area was a point of contention between the Polish and Czechoslovak governments in the past and the two countries fought a brief seven-day war over it in On 28 September , Warsaw fell.

In —41, the Soviets deported hundreds of thousands of Poles. Polish intelligence operatives proved extremely valuable to the Allies, providing much of the intelligence from Europe and beyond, [78] and Polish code breakers were responsible for cracking the Enigma cypher.

Poland made the fourth-largest troop contribution in Europe [f] and its troops served both the Polish Government in Exile in the west and Soviet leadership in the east.

Polish troops played an important role in the Normandy , Italian and North African Campaigns and are particularly remembered for the Battle of Monte Cassino.

The wartime resistance movement , and the Armia Krajowa Home Army , fought against German occupation. It was one of the three largest resistance movements of the entire war, [g] and encompassed a range of clandestine activities, which functioned as an underground state complete with degree-awarding universities and a court system.

Nazi German forces under orders from Adolf Hitler set up six German extermination camps in occupied Poland, including Treblinka , Majdanek and Auschwitz.

The Germans transported millions of Jews from across occupied Europe to be murdered in those camps. During the Warsaw Uprising alone, over , Polish civilians were killed, most were murdered by the Germans during the Wola and Ochota massacres.

In , Poland's borders were shifted westwards. The shift forced the migration of millions of other people , most of whom were Poles, Germans, Ukrainians, and Jews.

At the insistence of Joseph Stalin , the Yalta Conference sanctioned the formation of a new provisional pro-Communist coalition government in Moscow, which ignored the Polish government-in-exile based in London.

This action angered many Poles who considered it a betrayal by the Allies. In , Stalin had made guarantees to Churchill and Roosevelt that he would maintain Poland's sovereignty and allow democratic elections to take place.

However, upon achieving victory in , the elections organized by the occupying Soviet authorities were falsified and were used to provide a veneer of legitimacy for Soviet hegemony over Polish affairs.

The Soviet Union instituted a new communist government in Poland, analogous to much of the rest of the Eastern Bloc.

As elsewhere in Communist Europe , the Soviet influence over Poland was met with armed resistance from the outset which continued into the s.

Military alignment within the Warsaw Pact throughout the Cold War came about as a direct result of this change in Poland's political culture.

In the European scene, it came to characterize the full-fledged integration of Poland into the brotherhood of communist nations. The new communist government took control with the adoption of the Small Constitution on 19 February Collectivization in the Polish People's Republic failed.

A similar situation repeated itself in the s under Edward Gierek , but most of the time persecution of anti-communist opposition groups persisted.

Despite this, Poland was at the time considered to be one of the least oppressive states of the Eastern Bloc.

Despite persecution and imposition of martial law in , it eroded the dominance of the Polish United Workers' Party and by had triumphed in Poland's first partially free and democratic parliamentary elections since the end of the Second World War.

The Solidarity movement heralded the collapse of communist regimes and parties across Europe. A shock therapy programme, initiated by Leszek Balcerowicz in the early s, enabled the country to transform its socialist-style planned economy into a market economy.

As with other post-communist countries, Poland suffered declines in social and economic standards, [] but it became the first post-communist country to reach its pre GDP levels, which it achieved by thanks largely to its booming economy.

Most visibly, there were numerous improvements in human rights, such as freedom of speech , internet freedom no censorship , civil liberties 1st class and political rights 1st class , as ranked by Freedom House non-governmental organization.

Poles then voted to join the European Union in a referendum in June , with Poland becoming a full member on 1 May Poland joined the Schengen Area in , as a result of which, the country's borders with other member states of the European Union have been dismantled, allowing for full freedom of movement within most of the EU.

That border has become increasingly well protected, and has led in part to the coining of the phrase 'Fortress Europe' , in reference to the seeming 'impossibility' of gaining entry to the EU for citizens of the former Soviet Union.

These battle groups will operate outside of NATO and within the European defense initiative framework. In , the ruling Civic Platform won parliamentary elections.

In , Poland also became a member of the Development Assistance Committee. This coast is marked by several spits , coastal lakes former bays that have been cut off from the sea , and dunes.

The centre and parts of the north of the country lie within the North European Plain. Rising above these lowlands is a geographical region comprising four hilly districts of moraines and moraine-dammed lakes formed during and after the Pleistocene ice age.

The Masurian Lake District is the largest of the four and covers much of north-eastern Poland. The lake districts form part of the Baltic Ridge, a series of moraine belts along the southern shore of the Baltic Sea.

South of the Northern European Plain are the regions of Lusatia , Silesia and Masovia , which are marked by broad ice-age river valleys.

The highest part of the Carpathians is the Tatra Mountains , along Poland's southern border. Both processes shaped the Sudetes and the Carpathian Mountains.

The moraine landscape of northern Poland contains soils made up mostly of sand or loam , while the ice age river valleys of the south often contain loess.

The Polish Jura , the Pieniny , and the Western Tatras consist of limestone , while the High Tatras , the Beskids , and the Karkonosze are made up mainly of granite and basalts.

The Polish Jura Chain has some of the oldest rock formations on the continent of Europe. Poland has 70 mountains over 2, metres 6, feet in elevation, all in the Tatras.

The Polish Tatras, which consist of the High Tatras and the Western Tatras, is the highest mountain group of Poland and of the entire Carpathian range.

The lowest point in Poland — at 1. It is not a natural desert but results from human activity from the Middle Ages onwards.

As waves and wind carry sand inland the dunes slowly move, at a rate of 3 to 10 metres 9. The highest peak of the park is Rowokol metres or feet above sea level.

The eastern Beskids are also the source of some streams that drain through the Dniester to the Black Sea. Poland's rivers have been used since early times for navigation.

The Vikings , for example, travelled up the Vistula and the Oder in their longships. With almost ten thousand closed bodies of water covering more than 1 hectare 2.

In Europe, only Finland has a greater density of lakes. In addition to the lake districts in the north in Masuria, Pomerania, Kashubia , Lubuskie, and Greater Poland , there are also many mountain lakes in the Tatras, of which the Morskie Oko is the largest in area.

Among the first lakes whose shores were settled are those in the Greater Polish Lake District. The stilt house settlement of Biskupin , occupied by more than one thousand residents, was founded before the 7th century BC by people of the Lusatian culture.

Lakes have always played an important role in Polish history and continue to be of great importance to today's modern Polish society. The ancestors of today's Poles, the Polanie , built their first fortresses on islands in these lakes.

Nowadays the Polish lakes provide a location for the pursuit of water sports such as yachting and wind-surfing. For the most part, Poland has a smooth coastline, which has been shaped by the continual movement of sand by currents and winds.

The largest spits are Hel Peninsula and the Vistula Spit. The coast line is varied also by Szczecin and Vistula Lagoons and a few lakes, e.

Forests cover about The richness of Polish forest per SoEF statistics [ clarification needed ] is more than twice as high as European average with Germany and France at the top , containing 2.

Three more national parks are projected for Masuria , the Polish Jura, and the eastern Beskids. In addition, wetlands along lakes and rivers in central Poland are legally protected, as are coastal areas in the north.

There are over areas designated as landscape parks , along with numerous nature reserves and other protected areas e. Natura Since Poland's accession to the European Union in , Polish agriculture has performed extremely well and the country has over two million private farms.

According to the World Wide Fund for Nature , the territory of Poland belongs to three Palearctic Ecoregions of the continental forest spanning Central and Northern European temperate broadleaf and mixed forest ecoregions as well as the Carpathian montane conifer forest.

In the forests there are game animals, such as red deer , roe deer and wild boar. Poland is the most important breeding ground for a variety of European migratory birds.

Both survived in Poland longer than anywhere else. The climate is mostly temperate throughout the country. The climate is oceanic in the north and west and becomes gradually warmer and continental towards the south and east.

Precipitation falls throughout the year, although, especially in the east, winter is drier than summer.

Poland is a representative democracy , with a president as the head of state. The president appoints the cabinet according to the proposals of the prime minister, typically from the majority coalition in the Sejm.

The president is elected by popular vote every five years. The current president is Andrzej Duda and the prime minister is Mateusz Morawiecki.

Polish voters elect a bicameral parliament consisting of a member lower house Sejm and a member Senate Senat.

The Sejm is elected under proportional representation according to the d'Hondt method , a method similar to that used in many parliamentary political systems.

The Senat, on the other hand, is elected under the first-past-the-post voting method, with one senator being returned from each of the constituencies.

To date only the first instance has occurred. The judicial branch plays an important role in decision-making. The ombudsman has the duty of guarding the observance and implementation of the rights and liberties of Polish citizens and residents, of the law and of principles of community life and social justice.

The Constitution of Poland is the enacted supreme law, and the Polish legal system is based on the principle of civil rights, governed by the code of civil law.

The current democratic constitution was adopted by the National Assembly of Poland on 2 April ; it guarantees a multi-party state with freedoms of religion, speech and assembly, prohibits the practices of forced medical experimentation , torture or corporal punishment , and acknowledges the inviolability of the home, the right to form trade unions , and the right to strike.

Historically, the most significant Polish legal act is the Constitution of 3 May , one of the first of its kind in Europe. Previously, only the Henrician Articles signed by each of Poland's elected monarchs could perform the function of a set of basic laws.

The new Constitution introduced political equality between townspeople and the nobility szlachta , and placed the peasants under the protection of the government.

It abolished pernicious parliamentary policies such as the liberum veto , which permitted any deputy to rescind all the legislation passed in the interest of a foreign power.

The 3 May Constitution sought to supplant the existing anarchy fostered by some of the country's reactionary magnates , with a more egalitarian and democratic constitutional monarchy.

The Constitution influenced many later democratic movements across the globe. Prior to the last Partition in , tax-paying females were allowed to take part in political life, and, since , all women can vote.

Poland was the 12th sovereign country to introduce universal women's suffrage. Currently, in Poland abortion is allowed only in special circumstances, such as when the woman's life or health is endangered by the continuation of pregnancy, when the pregnancy is a result of a criminal act, or when the fetus is seriously malformed.

Poland has a low homicide rate at 0. Poland is the fifth most populous member state of the European Union and has a grand total of 52 representatives in the European Parliament as of Poland is an important hub for international relations and a regional power in Central Europe, with the largest economy of the Three Seas Initiative.

Poland also guested as an invitee at the G20 summit due to its economic prominence in the region. The treaty acted as a balance of power [] or counterweight [] to NATO, which was then headed by western capitalist states.

The People's Republic was more liberal than other communist countries in Europe [] at the time and the Polish communist government maintained neutral or warm ties with Western Europe, the United States and vice versa.

Poland has also established extensive relations with Ukraine , [] in an effort to firmly anchor that country within the Western world and prevent the Ukrainians from forming an alliance with the Russian Federation.

Over the past two decades, Poland significantly strengthened its ties with the United States , thus becoming one of its closest allies in Europe.

Poland was part of the US-led coalition force during the Iraq War in , and sent its troops in the first phase of the conflict, jointly with the United Kingdom and Australia.

In recent years, Poland also sought to become a mediator between the Trump administration and the European Union in solving European disputes.

Poland's current voivodeships provinces are largely based on the country's historic regions, whereas those of the past two decades to had been centred on and named for individual cities.

Administrative authority at voivodeship level is shared between a government-appointed voivode governor , an elected regional assembly sejmik and a voivodeship marshal, an executive elected by that assembly.

The voivodeships are subdivided into powiats often referred to in English as counties , and these are further divided into gminas also known as communes or municipalities.

Major cities normally have the status of both gmina and powiat. Poland has 16 voivodeships, powiats including 66 cities with powiat status , and 2, gminas.

Plans call for the force, once fully active, to consist of 53, people who will be trained and equipped to counter potential hybrid warfare threats. However, its commander-in-chief is the President of the Republic.

The Polish army's size is estimated at around , soldiers The Polish Navy primarily operates in the Baltic Sea and conducts operations such as maritime patrol, search and rescue for the section of the Baltic under Polish sovereignty, as well as hydrographic measurements and research.

Also, the Polish Navy played a more international role as part of the invasion of Iraq , providing logistical support for the United States Navy.

The current position of the Polish Air Force is much the same; it has routinely taken part in Baltic Air Policing assignments, but otherwise, with the exception of a number of units serving in Afghanistan , has seen no active combat.

In , the FC Block 52 was chosen as the new general multi-role fighter for the air force, the first deliveries taking place in November The most important mission of the armed forces is the defence of Polish territorial integrity and Polish interests abroad.

Compulsory military service for men was discontinued in From , until conscription ended in , the mandatory service was nine months. Polish military doctrine reflects the same defensive nature as that of its NATO partners.

From to Poland was a large contributor to various United Nations peacekeeping missions. Currently, Poland's military is going through a significant modernization phase, which will be completed in Also, the army plans to modernize its existing inventory of main battle tanks , and update its stock of small arms.

In May the Ministry of National Defence has assured that the Polish army will be increased to , active personnel. Poland has a highly developed system of law enforcement with a long history of effective policing by the State Police Service Policja.

The structure of law enforcement agencies within Poland is a multi-tier one, with the State Police providing criminal-investigative services, Municipal Police serving to maintain public order and a number of other specialized agencies, such as the Polish Border Guard , acting to fulfill their assigned missions.

In addition to these state services, private security companies are also common, although they possess no powers assigned to state agencies, such as, for example, the power to make an arrest or detain a suspect.

Emergency services in Poland consist of the emergency medical services , search and rescue units of the Polish Armed Forces and State Fire Service.

Emergency medical services in Poland are, unlike other services, provided for by local and regional government. Since joining the European Union in all of Poland's emergency services underwent major restructuring and have, in the process, acquired large amounts of new equipment and trained staff.

Poland's economy and Gross Domestic Product GDP is currently the sixth largest in the European Union by nominal standards , and the fifth largest by purchasing power parity.

It is also one of the fastest growing within the Union. Having a strong domestic market, low private debt, low unemployment rate, flexible currency, and not being dependent on a single export sector, Poland is the only European economy to have avoided the recession of It is an example of the transition from a centrally planned to a primarily market-based economy.

The country is the 25th largest exporter of goods and services in the world and its most successful exports include machinery, furniture, food products, clothing, shoes and cosmetics.

The Polish banking sector is the largest in the Central and Eastern European region, [] with They are regulated by the Polish Financial Supervision Authority.

During the transformation to a market-oriented economy, the government privatized several banks, recapitalized the rest, and introduced legal reforms that made the sector more competitive.

This has attracted a significant number of strategic foreign investors ICFI. Poland's banking sector has approximately 5 national banks, a network of nearly cooperative banks and 18 branches of foreign-owned banks.

Poland has many private farms in its agricultural sector, with the potential to become a leading producer of food in the European Union.

The biggest money-makers abroad include smoked and fresh fish, fine chocolate, and dairy products, meats and specialty breads, [] with the exchange rate conducive to export growth.

Warsaw leads Central Europe in foreign investment. Since the gradual opening of the European Union labour market from , Poland has experienced mass emigration of over 2.

Poland is also one of the world's biggest producers of copper , silver and coal , as well as potatoes , rye , rapeseed , cabbage , apples , strawberries and ribes.

Poland is recognised as a regional economic leader within Central Europe, with nearly 40 percent of the biggest companies in the region by revenues as well as a high globalisation rate.

The economic transition in has resulted in a dynamic increase in the number and value of investments conducted by Polish corporations abroad.

Over a quarter of these companies have participated in a foreign project or joint venture , and 72 percent decided to continue foreign expansion.

According to reports made by the National Bank of Poland , the value of Polish foreign direct investments reached almost billion PLN at the end of The Central Statistical Office estimated that in there were around 1, Polish corporations with interests in 3, foreign entities.

Poland experienced a significant increase in the number of tourists after joining the European Union in Tourist attractions in Poland vary, from the mountains in the south to the sandy beaches in the north, with a trail of nearly every architectural style.

The Polish capital Warsaw and its historical Old Town were entirely reconstructed after wartime destruction. A notable highlight is the 13th-century Wieliczka Salt Mine with its labyrinthine tunnels, a subterranean lake and chapels carved by miners out of rock salt beneath the ground.

Poland's main tourist offerings include outdoor activities such as skiing, sailing, mountain hiking and climbing, as well as agrotourism, sightseeing historical monuments.

The Pieniny and Bieszczady Mountains lie in the extreme south-east. The electricity generation sector in Poland is largely fossil-fuel —based.

Many power plants nationwide use Poland's position as a major European exporter of coal to their advantage by continuing to use coal as the primary raw material in production of their energy.

In , Poland scored 48 out of states in the Energy Sustainability Index. All three of these companies are key constituents of the Warsaw Stock Exchange 's lead economic indexes.

Renewable forms of energy account for a smaller proportion of Poland's full energy generation capacity. This is to be achieved mainly through the construction of wind farms and a number of hydroelectric stations.

Poland has around ,,, m 3 of proven natural gas reserves and around 96,, barrels of proven oil reserves.

However, the small amounts of fossil fuels naturally occurring in Poland is insufficient to satisfy the full energy consumption needs of the population.

Therefore, the country is a net importer of oil and natural gas. Transport in Poland is provided by means of rail , road , marine shipping and air travel.

The country is part of EU's Schengen Area and is an important transport hub along neighbouring Germany due to its strategic position in Central Europe.

The country has a good network of highways , composed of express roads and motorways. At the start of , Poland had 4, Most inter-regional connections rail routes in Poland are operated by PKP Intercity , whilst regional trains are run by a number of private operators, the largest of which is Polregio.

The air and maritime transport markets in Poland are largely well developed. It was established in from a merger of Aerolloyd and Aero Poland has begun preparations for a construction that can handle million passengers of the Central Communication Port.

Over the course of history, the Polish people have made considerable contributions in the fields of science, technology and mathematics.

Copernicus' achievements and discoveries are considered the basis of Polish culture and cultural identity. Poland's tertiary education institutions; traditional universities , as well as technical, medical, and economic institutions, employ around tens of thousands of researchers and staff members.

There are hundreds of research and development institutes. In she established Poland's Radium Institute. In the first half of the 20th century, Poland was a flourishing centre of mathematics.

Over 40 research and development centers and 4, researchers make Poland the biggest research and development hub in Central and Eastern Europe.

After regaining independence in , Poland's postal system developed rapidly as new services were introduced including money transfers , payment of pensions, delivery of magazines, and air mail.

During wars and national uprisings , communication was provided mainly through the military authorities.

At present, the service is a modern state-owned company that provides a number of standard and express delivery as well as home-delivery services.

With an estimated number of around 83, employees , [] Poczta Polska also has a personal tracking system for parcels.

In the company adopted a strategy that assumes increasing revenues to 6. Poland, with approximately It has a population density of inhabitants per square kilometre per square mile.

The total fertility rate in was estimated at 1. The Upper Silesian metropolitan area around Katowice is the largest urban conurbation in Poland with up to 5.

In the Polish census , 37,, Other identities were reported by , people 0. Ethnic Poles themselves can be divided into many diverse regional ethnographic sub-groups, most notable being the Kashubians , Silesians and Gorals Highlanders.

The statistics do not include recently arrived migrant workers. Polish is the only official and predominant spoken language in Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries as well as being one of the official languages of the European Union.

Polish is also a second language in Lithuania , where it is taught in schools and universities. Poland's once multi-ethnic population communicated in numerous languages and lects which faded or disappeared along the course of history.

There are currently 15 [] minority languages in Poland, including one recognized regional language, Kashubian , which is spoken by around , people in the northern regions of Kashubia and Pomerania.

Poland recognized secondary administrative languages or auxiliary languages in bilingual municipalities. Currently, German and Kashubian hold such status in 19 municipalities gminas , Belarusian in 9 and Lithuanian in 1.

Silesian and Wymysorys Vilamovian are not legally recognized or acknowledged as separate languages with a minority status.

According to the census, An estimated For centuries the Lechitic peoples inhabiting the lands of modern-day Poland have practiced various forms of paganism known as Rodzimowierstwo , or "native faith".

The persistence was demonstrated by a series of rebellions in the s known as the Pagan reaction , which also showed elements of a peasant uprising against medieval feudalism.

Religious tolerance was an important part of Polish political culture, though it varied at times. In , the Statute of Kalisz granted Jews unprecedented legal rights not found anywhere in Europe.

In , the Warsaw Confederation marked the formal beginning of extensive religious freedoms in Poland. It was partially influenced by the St.

Bartholomew's Day Massacre in France , which prompted the nobility to prevent the monarch from carrying out reprehensible atrocities in Poland based on religious affiliation.

Contemporary religious minorities include Christian Orthodox , , [7] various Protestants , — including 77, Lutherans of the Evangelical-Augsburg Church , [7] 23, Pentecostals in the Pentecostal Church in Poland , 10, Adventists in the Seventh-day Adventist Church and other smaller Evangelical denominations [7] — Jehovah's Witnesses , , [7] Eastern Catholics , Mariavites , Jews , Muslims Tatars and neopagans , some of whom are members of the Native Polish Church.

Poland's healthcare system is based on an all-inclusive insurance system. State subsidised healthcare is available to all Polish citizens who are covered by this general health insurance program.

However, it is not compulsory to be treated in a state-run hospital as a number of private medical complexes exist nationwide.

All medical service providers and hospitals in Poland are subordinate to the Polish Ministry of Health , which provides oversight and scrutiny of general medical practice as well as being responsible for the day-to-day administration of the healthcare system.

In addition to these roles, the ministry is tasked with the maintenance of standards of hygiene and patient-care.

Hospitals in Poland are organised according to the regional administrative structure, resultantly most towns have their own hospital Szpital Miejski.

In , the Polish health-care industry experienced further transformation. Hospitals were given priority for refurbishment where necessary.

According to the Human Development Report from , the average life expectancy at birth is The Commission of National Education Komisja Edukacji Narodowej established in , was the world's first state ministry of education.

It is compulsory that children participate in one year of formal education before entering the 1st class at no later than 7 years of age. Corporal punishment of children in schools is officially prohibited since before the partitions and criminalised since in schools as well as at home.

At the end of the 6th class when students are 13, students take a compulsory exam that will determine their acceptance and transition into a specific lower secondary school gimnazjum —middle school or junior high.

They will attend this school for three years during classes 7, 8, and 9. Students then take another compulsory exam to determine the upper secondary level school they will attend.

There are several alternatives, the most common being the three years in a liceum or four years in a technikum. In Poland, there are university-level institutions for the pursuit of higher education.

The culture of Poland is closely connected with its intricate 1,year history and forms an important constituent in western civilization. The appreciation of Poland's traditions and cultural heritage is commonly known as Polonophilia.

With origins in the customs of the tribal Lechites , over time the culture of Poland has been influenced by its connection to Western culture and trends, as well as developing its own unique traditions such as Sarmatism.

These factors have contributed to the versatile nature of Polish art. The architectural monuments of great importance are protected by the National Heritage Board of Poland.

Poland is renowned for its brick Gothic castles, granaries and churches as well as diversely-styled tenements , market squares and town halls.

The majority of Polish cities founded on Magdeburg Law in the Middle Ages evolved around central marketplaces, a distinguishable urban characteristic which can be observed to this day.

Particular traditions and superstitious customs observed in Poland are not found elsewhere in Europe. Though Christmas Eve Wigilia is not a public holiday, it remains the most memorable day in the entire year.

A widely-popular doughnut and sweet pastry feast occurs on Fat Thursday , usually 52 days prior to Easter. Easter Monday is celebrated with pagan dyngus festivities, where the youth is engaged in water fights and some girls are gently spanked by colleagues with pussy willows to stimulate fertility.

Cemeteries and graves of the deceased are annually visited by family members on All Saints' Day; tombstones are cleaned as a sign of respect and candles are lit to honour the dead on an unprecedented scale.

Artists from Poland, including famous musicians such as Chopin , Rubinstein , Paderewski , Penderecki and Wieniawski , and traditional, regionalized folk composers create a lively and diverse music scene, which even recognizes its own music genres, such as sung poetry and disco polo.

Other early compositions, such as the melody of Bogurodzica and God Is Born a coronation polonaise tune for Polish kings by an unknown composer , may also date back to this period, however, the first known notable composer, Nicholas of Radom , lived in the 15th century.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, Polish baroque composers wrote liturgical music and secular compositions such as concertos and sonatas for voices or instruments.

At the end of the 18th century, Polish classical music evolved into national forms like the polonaise. Traditional Polish folk music has had a major effect on the works of many Polish composers, and no more so than on Fryderyk Chopin, a widely recognised national hero of the arts.

All of Chopin's works involve the piano and are technically demanding, emphasising nuance and expressive depth. It is largely thanks to him that such pieces gained great popularity throughout Europe during the 19th century.

Several Polish composers such as Szymanowski drew inspiration from Chopin's folk-influenced style. Nowadays the most distinctive folk music can be heard in the towns and villages of the mountainous south, particularly in the region surrounding the winter resort town of Zakopane.

Poland today has an active music scene, with the jazz and metal genres being particularly popular among the contemporary populace.

Polish jazz musicians such as Krzysztof Komeda created a unique style, which was most famous in the s and s and continues to be popular to this day.

Poland has also become a major venue for large-scale music festivals, chief among which are the Open'er Festival , Opole Festival and Sopot Festival.

Art in Poland has always reflected European trends while maintaining its unique character. Perhaps the most prominent and internationally admired Polish artist was Tamara de Lempicka , who specialized in the style of Art Deco.

Prior to the 19th century only Daniel Schultz and Italian-born Marcello Bacciarelli had the privilege of being recognized abroad. Within historically-orientated circles, Henryk Siemiradzki dominated with his monumental Academic Art and ancient Roman theme.

Since the inter-war years, Polish art and documentary photography has enjoyed worldwide fame and in the s the Polish School of Posters was formed.

Although not Polish, the work had a strong influence on Polish culture and has been often associated with Polish identity.

Polish cities and towns reflect a whole spectrum of European architectural styles. Romanesque architecture is represented by St. History has not been kind to Poland's architectural monuments.

Nonetheless, a number of ancient structures have survived: castles, churches, and stately homes, often unique in the regional or European context.

The centres of Kazimierz Dolny and Sandomierz on the Vistula are good examples of well-preserved medieval towns. The second half of the 17th century is marked by baroque architecture.

The profuse decorations of the Branicki Palace in Warsaw are characteristic of the rococo style. Traditional folk architecture in the villages and small towns scattered across the vast Polish countryside is characterized by its extensive use of wood and bare brick as primary building materials, common for Central Europe.

Some of the best preserved and oldest structures include ancient stone temples in Silesia and fortified wooden churches across southeastern Poland in the Beskids and Bieszczady regions of the Carpathian mountains.

However, traditional construction methods faded in the first decades of the s, when Poland's population experienced a demographic shift to urban dwelling away from the countryside.

The earliest examples of Polish literature date to the 12th century, [] when Poland's official language was Latin , and early published works were predominantly written by foreigners.

Gallus Anonymus , a monk of uncertain origin, was the first chronicler who meticulously described Poland's culture, language and territories in Gesta principum Polonorum c.

Historically, Polish literature concentrated extensively around the themes of true drama and poetic -expressive romanticism than on fiction.

Patriotism , spirituality and aphorisms were paramount and political or social allegories were common moral narratives. The first documented phrase in the Polish language reads " Day ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai " "Let me grind, and you take a rest" , reflecting the use of quern-stone by artisans and farmers in early Poland.

Haller's Calendarium cracoviense , an astronomical wall calendar from , is Poland's oldest surviving print. During the Polish Baroque era, the Jesuits greatly influenced Polish literature and literary techniques, often relying on God and religious matters.

Jan Chryzostom Pasek , also a respected baroque writer, is mostly remembered for his tales and memoirs reflecting sarmatian culture in the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Nicholas Wisdom , which was a milestone for Polish literature. Joseph Conrad , the son of dramatist Apollo Korzeniowski , won worldwide fame with his English-language novels and stories that are informed with elements of the Polish national experience.

Polish cuisine has evolved over the centuries to become highly eclectic due to Poland's history. Polish cuisine shares many similarities with other Central European cuisines, especially German and Austrian [] as well as Jewish , [] French , Italian and Turkish culinary traditions.

Polish dishes are usually rich in meat, especially pork, chicken and beef depending on the region , winter vegetables sauerkraut cabbage in bigos , and spices.

Polish cuisine is hearty and uses a lot of cream and eggs. Festive meals such as the meatless Christmas Eve dinner Wigilia or Easter breakfast could take days to prepare in their entirety.

The side dishes are usually potatoes, rice or kasza cereals. Meals conclude with a dessert such as sernik cheesecake , makowiec poppy seed pastry , or napoleonka cream pie , and tea.

Fashion was always an important aspect of Poland and its national identity. Several Polish designers and stylists left a lifelong legacy of beauty inventions and cosmetics , most notable being Maksymilian Faktorowicz and Helena Rubinstein.

Faktorowicz created a line of cosmetics company in California known as Max Factor and coined the term "make-up" based on the verb phrase "to make up" one's face, now widely used as an alternative for describing cosmetics.

The particular clothing styles in Poland evolved with each century. In the s high-class noblemen and magnates developed a strong sympathy for Orientalism , which was also common in other parts of Europe and became known as Sarmatism.

The period of Polish Sarmatism eventually faded in the wake of the 18th century. The Polish national dress as well as the fashion and etiquette of Poland also reached the royal court at Versailles in the s.

As of , Poland possesses the fifth-largest cosmetic market in Europe. The history of Polish cinema is as long as the history of cinematography itself.

Over decades, Poland has produced outstanding directors, film producers, cartoonists and actors that achieved world fame, especially in Hollywood.

Moreover, Polish inventors played an important role in the development of world cinematography and modern-day television.

In , Jan Szczepanik , obtained a British patent for his Telectroscope. This prototype of television could easily transmit image and sound, thus allowing a live remote view.

Polish cinema developed rapidly in the interwar period. The most renowned star of the silent film era was Polish actress Pola Negri. During this time, the Yiddish cinema also evolved in Poland.

Films in the Yiddish language with Jewish themes, such as The Dybbuk , played an important part in pre-war Polish cinematography. In the government established ' Film Polski ', a state-run film production and distribution organization, with director Aleksander Ford as the head of the company.

Poland has a number of major media outlets, chief among which are the national television channels. TVP is Poland's public broadcasting corporation; about a third of its income comes from a broadcast receiver licence , while the rest is made through revenue from commercials and sponsorships.

Rzeczpospolita , founded in is one of the oldest newspapers still in operation in the country. Poland has also emerged as a major hub for video game developers in Europe, with the country now being home to hundreds of studios.

Volleyball and Association football are among the country's most popular sports, with a rich history of international competitions.

The golden era of football in Poland occurred throughout the s and went on until the early s when the Polish national football team achieved their best results in any FIFA World Cup competitions finishing 3rd place in the and the tournaments.

The team won a gold medal in football at the Summer Olympics and two silver medals, in and in As of , the Polish men's national volleyball team is ranked as 3rd in the world.

He won the Canadian Grand Prix , took part in rallying and had a full-time seat for the F1 season. Poland has made a distinctive mark in motorcycle speedway racing thanks to Tomasz Gollob , a highly successful Polish rider.

The top Ekstraliga division has one of the highest average attendances for any sport in Poland. The national speedway team of Poland , one of the major teams in international speedway, [] has won the Speedway World Team Cup championships three times consecutively, in , , and No team has ever managed such feat.

Poles made significant achievements in mountaineering, in particular, in the Himalayas and the winter ascending of the eight-thousanders.

Polish mountains are one of the tourist attractions of the country. Hiking, climbing, skiing and mountain biking and attract numerous tourists every year from all over the world.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the dance, see Polska dance. For other uses, see Rzeczpospolita Polska disambiguation.

For other uses, see Poland disambiguation. Country in Europe. Country in Central Europe. Show globe. Show map of Europe. List of religions.

Website poland. Main article: Name of Poland. Main article: History of Poland. Main articles: History of Poland — and Partitions of Poland.

Main articles: History of Poland —present and enlargement of the European Union. Main article: Geography of Poland. Main article: Rivers of Poland.

Main article: Politics of Poland. Andrzej Duda President. Mateusz Morawiecki Prime Minister. Main article: Law of Poland. The Polish Constitutional Tribunal.

The Supreme Court of Poland. Main articles: Foreign relations of Poland and List of diplomatic missions of Poland. Main article: Administrative divisions of Poland.

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Während die polnische Mannschaft um Aushängeschild Robert Lewandowski in der Tabelle besser postiert ist, spricht die Form für Österreich. Tipp - die 12terMann-App! Polen EM-Qualifikation Als er es in Halbzeit Beste Spielothek in Auingen finden einmal probierte, wurde es auch halbwegs gefährlich. Juni um Wir Polen Vs realistisch sein, momentan sind sie der Favorit", sagte Lewandowski - der auf seinen Bayern-Teamkameraden David Alaba treffen wird - vor dem Spiel. Für die Gäste ist das Match in sportlicher Hinsicht andererseits ohne Wert, doch gegen Polen haben die Slowenen in der Vergangenheit oftmals eine gute Figur gemacht. Ihr findet ihn unter diesem Link. Sieg Polen : 1. Ich denke, es wird ein enges Spiel. Österreich EM-Qualifikation Marcel Sabitzer : 3 Blieb bis zu einem starken Meter-Lauf in der ersten halben Stunde eher unauffällig.

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Wenig später holte er sich verdient Gelb ab. Gleichzeitig musste Polen beim in Slowenien die erste Niederlage einstecken. Die Arnautovic-Chance nach Seitenwechsel legte er mustergültig auf.

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